Part III: From Discovery to Rollout

In this section, your students will reflect on the challenges and triumphs Dr. Allison's team encountered in the development of ipilimumab. The lab activity teaches students about the FDA and how an idea becomes a drug or form of therapy. The activities in this section include:

 

Exploring careers in science is also a great activity after watching the film. See our Careers in Science and Scientist Profiles activities to learn more. 

Educators can sign up to get the link to the segment and full toolkit here.

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Part III: Standards Alignment

NGSS Standards/Lesson Objectives​

 LS1.A: Structure and Function 

  • HS-LS1-2. I can develop and use a model to illustrate the complex organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms. 

ETS1: Engineering Design

  • HS-ETS1-2. Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering.

 

NGSS Cross-Cutting Concepts

  • Patterns: Observed patterns in nature guide organization and classification and prompt questions about relationships and causes underlying them.

    • Different patterns may be observed at each of the scales at which a system is studied and can provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena.

    • Patterns of performance of designed systems can be analyzed and interpreted to reengineer and improve the system.

    • Empirical evidence is needed to identify patterns.

  • Cause and Effect: Mechanism and Prediction: Events have causes, sometimes simple, sometimes multifaceted. Deciphering causal relationships, and the mechanisms by which they are mediated, is a major activity of science and engineering.

    • Empirical evidence is required to differentiate between cause and correlation and make claims about specific causes and effects.

    • Cause and effect relationships can be suggested and predicted for complex natural and human designed systems by examining what is known about smaller scale mechanisms within the system.

    • Systems can be designed to cause a desired effect

  • Scale, Proportion, and Quantity: In considering phenomena, it is critical to recognize what is relevant at different size, time, and energy scales, and to recognize proportional relationships between different quantities as scales change.

    • Some systems can only be studied indirectly as they are too small, too large, too fast, or too slow to observe directly.

    • Patterns observable at one scale may not be observable or exist at other scales.

  • Systems and System Models: A system is an organized group of related objects or components; models can be used for understanding and predicting the behavior of systems.

    • Systems can be designed to do specific tasks.

    • When investigating or describing a system, the boundaries and initial conditions of the system need to be defined and their inputs and outputs analyzed and described using models.

    • Models (e.g., physical, mathematical, computer models) can be used to simulate systems and interactions—including energy, matter, and information flows—within and between systems at different scales.

    • Models can be used to predict the behavior of a system, but these predictions have limited precision and reliability due to the assumptions and approximations inherent in models.

  • Structure and Function: The way an object is shaped or structured determines many of its properties and functions.

    • Investigating or designing new systems or structures requires a detailed examination of the properties of different materials, the structures of different components, and connections of components to reveal its function and/or solve a problem.
       

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